2.0 Select and Critically Analyse the Impact of 2 Principles or Theories in the Planning and Delivering Teaching in Your Own Setting.

2.0 select and critically analyse the impact of 2 principles or theories in the planning and delivering teaching in your own setting.

The use of the two educational theorists Robert Gagne and George A Miller can both be extremely useful when planning and delivering Physical Education and Strength and Conditioning classes. When planning and delivering the sessions I teach I use a mixture of these two methods. Firstly using Gagne??™s 9 steps of learning methods I begin the lesson by presenting the days subject which enables me to gain the learners attention. This can be done in a number of ways. The simplest way I use is to explain the sport or exercise the learners will be learning today. I then encourage the learners to interact by asking myself any questions and then presenting any thoughts they have to the class. The point of this step is to ground the lesson into the learners reality and have them involved from the beginning. When teaching younger learners 14 years and above I always start at the very beginning; demonstrating how to correctly put on sports socks and footwear in order to avoid blisters. Also reminding learners to always wear the correct size and appropriate footwear.
Proceeding to Gagne??™s 2nd step, I then describe the goal of today??™s lesson, this gets the learners involved in their own learning by providing them with the objectives for what they??™ll be learning; thus enabling the learners to judge if they are actually learning what is being taught during the lesson. For example; last Monday I taught the college rugby team how to correctly power clean the Olympic bar. At the start of the lesson I announced ???today you will all learn how to correctly power clean, using the Olympic bar???, ???this move will increase your all-round strength and explosive power especially when scrummaging and tackling???.
Using Gagne??™s 3rd step I proceed to stimulate recall any prior knowledge and or experience they have of either using the Olympic bar and Olympic lifting experience they may have. This helps show how the knowledge is interconnected while providing them with a scaffold or framework for learning.
Using Gagne??™s 4th tier based on the goal for the lesson, I proceed to provide the learners with the actual material to be learned. This is the bulk of what I do on a day-to-day basis. However, by adding in the other steps, and integrating George A Millers ???chunking??? the learners have a much greater chance to remember and recall the information being taught, and more importantly, be able to perform a decent power clean by the end of the class. This form of ???deep practise??? involves taking a move or skill apart piece by piece, coaching each individual part and putting this all back together again; again this is another great example of ???chunking???. Observing the learners perform the skill, with myself stepping in with the corrections that need to be made.
Taking into account the learners different learning styles; I played the learners a YouTube clip of an athlete performing the power clean. I then invited the learners to view a diagram illustrating the chain of movements required to correctly execute the lift. Carefully explaining each movement required in a clear fashion.

Using gagnes 5th step I then proceed to provide the guidance for learning. Now that I have presented the information, I then guide my learners in their own learning of the material. I began by doing a demonstration of a correct power clean with no weight on the bar. Using George A Millers ???chunking which is breaking a move into constituent bits???. ???chunking” can be any partial movement we do in weightlifting??? I then began to break the move down into each chain of events during the lift. Beginning with the correct lifting posture; squat position, back arched, bar touching the shins, hands on the outside of the legs, palms facing downwards, pulling slightly so as to take the slack out of bar, head up, chest upright, shoulders back, knees pushed outwards, tighten glutes. Using gagne??™s 6th step which is the practising of what is being taught; each learner took their place behind their own bar and proceeded to adopt this correct lifting posture, with myself observing and making slight corrections to each learner??™s posture in this position. Once all of the learners had mastered this I proceeded to move into the next movement; pulling the bar up slowly until it is almost level with the trouser pockets, and then with an aggressive snap of the hips, bouncing the bar off the front of the quadriceps and up towards the upper chest, explaining that all of the power required in the move is counter intuitive came from the legs and hips, exactly the same as the kettlebell swing I taught them 2 weeks prior. Again the Learners executed this 2nd part of the move, again with me correcting each learner individually until each learner had mastered this. I then demonstrated the third and final part of the move; the catching of the Olympic bar at the front of the shoulders, pushing the elbows through, palms facing upwards, moving the feet at the same time as quickly as possible into the landing position. Again the learners attempted this until everyone had mastered it.
I then proceeded to demonstrate some assistance exercises for the power clean. Firstly asking the learners to jump as high as possible vertically from a squatting position whilst simultaneously snapping their hips forward at least 10 times. Secondly the learners then each held a plastic PVC pipe in a downward position and as quickly as possible used this jumping method to catch the pipe on the shoulders, and at the same time moving their feet as fast as possible into the landing position.
Finally the learners proceeded to attempt the power clean with weights on the bar from start to finish, again I circulated the gym fine tuning each learner until every learner could master the full move which they all did, meaning we were able to progress to the snatch during the next lesson.
Proceeding to Gagne??™s 7th step I then provided informative feedback when circulating around the learners in the class, trying to be very specific, even practising the power clean move with each learner individually.

Gagne??™s 8th step involves assessing the learner??™s performance; at which time I assessed whether the learners had completed the days objective of learning the power clean. I did this by ascertaining each learners 1 rep max in the power clean (maximum amount of weight lifted one time). Taking into account correct technique and body alignment. A good indication that learning had taken place entailed any learner who could lift 60 kg or more by the end of the class. Using this information I provided the learners with feedback. Each learner received a pass mark for that class.

Finally using Gagne??™s 9th step of enhanced retention and transfer of information I asked each learner to make notes of all that they had learned during the lesson; to recall and record step by step each move involved in the power clean, muscles involved and its many strength and fitness benefits. Performing the power clean improves many areas of fitness, including cardiovascular, strength, V02 max, flexibility, the ability to use the body to its full potential. A strong flexible athlete will perform their chosen sport with more efficiency and to a higher standard.
3.0 Reflect On The Impact of these insights In Your Own Practise And Personal Development
These two approaches worked well firstly by augmenting and solidifying my understanding, the theoretical research I did giving me a greater knowledge of both theorists, especially Gagne??™s; the actual process of planning each lesson using his 9 stage template, when put into practise I realised the importance of perfect timing of each stage due to the lessons time constraints. Teaching using both theories gave me a much greater understanding of both theories.
When reflecting on what impact these methods have had I would say on the whole both methods are extremely effective ways of teaching and even more so when combined together.
For maximum strength-gain with the most efficient amount of effort, I instructed my learners to complete 2-to-3 repetition sets of relatively heavy weight with lots of rest in between; ???chunking???.?  The college Rugby team did this three-times-a-week, their muscles were under tension for less than five minutes, this method involved myself constantly re- aligning them and paying great attention to detail, once I had broken the basic elements down, then continuing to highly tune these elements.
Having worked in gymnasiums for over 10 years now I have worked with so many other coaches who use both a combination of Gagn??™e and Miller in their coaching. Using these methods has enabled me to teach most learners the power clean to a reasonable standard in under an hour. Throughout my career I will always use both methods in my teaching practice. Having a clear understanding of my learners capabilities, both methods seem to cater for ALL learners especially Millers; especially for a learner who may be more auditory than kinaesthetic. ???Chunking??? was especially useful when filming the learners performing an Olympic lift, in this way the learner could actually see for themselves what they needed to work on, fortunately my video camera has a slow motion facility which really highlighted their weaknesses. As each move or skill is broken down so precisely; this gives the learner (who may not be a natural athlete) a real insight into what is being taught.
Additionally one of my learners approached me asking for a training plan for a 10 K running event she was doing for charity in 3 months time. She explained that she didn??™t have a great running background (aerobic base). I explained this wouldn??™t matter, that she simply needed to strengthen her body to burn fat (aerobically) at high intensities without her body switching to sugar (anaerobic).? I designed a training plan for her involving mostly 400 and 800 meter repeats, along with olympic lifting, she learned alongside the Rugby team. Following this plan she completed the 10 K in 45 minutes without ever running more than 800 meters in any one session.
On reflection I now fully realise the importance of expanding my knowledge and research of both Gagn??™e and Miller; and the need to plan each teaching session in stages and chunks, in order to continue achieving such positive results. I understand this will demand from me a great deal more in terms of time and commitment than I originally anticipated. This will require greater organisation on my part. I am currently devising some strategies that will help me to organise this research so that it is at my fingertips when I need it, one of which has involved setting up a system on my computer so that I can save links to Gagn??™e and Miller that I visit when researching. In future during lessons I will need to take more in depth notes on learners progress and I will also schedule time straight after lessons to complete this research, when my memory is still fresh; recording each learners weak points individually, and how I will improve them.


???RugbyFitnessTraining ATwelveMonth Conditioning Programme???Wilson.Ben.Biddles.KingsLynn.2006